Homelessness

Public homelessness is a category of homeless people without roof over their heads – people who reside on the street. Hidden homelessness is category of people without home, sheltered in institutionally or otherwise supported housing.

Ethos

ETHOS – EUROPEAN TYPOLOGY ON HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION

The homelessness is one of the main societal problems dealt with by the Strategy for Social Protection and EU Accession. Prevention of homelessness and resolution of the housing issues requires understanding of the way and the process which leads to homelessness, thus creating wide perception on the meaning of homelessness.

FEANTSA (European Association of Organizations Working with Homeless People) has developed a typology on homelessness and housing exclusion under the name of ETHOS.

ETHOS starts with the conceptual framework which defines the three segments of housing. The absence of any of these segments will indicate homelessness.

Having a home means: possession of an appropriate space which is exclusively owned by the person and his /her family (PHYSICAL DOMAIN). The space should offer a possibility for maintenance of privacy and social relations (SOCIAL DOMAIN) and there should be a legal right for the use of the space (LEGAL DOMAIN).

This leads to four different basic forms or concepts: 1.without roof, 2.without a home, 3.Insecure housing,

  1. Inappropriate housing. Each of these may be described as a lack of home.

ETHOS classifies the persons without a home based on their life situation or housing situation.

These conceptual categories are divided in 13 operational categories, which may be used for defining different goals for the policy as marking the problem with homelessness, development, monitoring and evaluation of the policy.

 

 

Operational category   Life situation General definition
1 People living in difficult conditions *1.1 In a public space or out in the open Life on the street or in public places, without shelter which resembles a residence No foof
2 People placed in urgent housing *2.1 Sleep-over shelters People who do not have regular place of residence and use the services of the shelters for sleepover
3 People housed in shelters for homeless 3.1
*3.2
3.3
Hostels for homeless
Temporary housing
Transition Housing Centres
Short-term stay No home
4 People housed in shelters for women *4.1 Shelters and reception points for women Women, mostly domestic violence victims, housed in shelter-centres intended for short-stay
5 People placed in housing intended for immigrants *5.1
5.2
*temporary housing / shelter centres
Housing for workers – immigrants
Immigrants in shelters and in centres for short-term housing due to their immigrant status
6 People soon to be released from prison, from health care or other institutions *6.1

*6.2
*6.3
*Correctional and penitentiary institutions *Health care institutions (including centres for rehabilitation of addicts, psychiatric hospitals)
**Institutions for children / homes
No available home prior to leaving the institution
Stays longer in the institution due to absence of home
No identified home (ex. until the 18th birthday)
7 People receiving long-term support due to homelessness 7.1

7.2
Residential housing of elderly homeless people Supported housing of former homeless people Longer-term housing with care for former homeless people (usually for a time 7.2 period longer than one year)
  Precarious housing
8 People living in insecure housing *8.1

*8.2

*8.3

Temporary housing with relatives and close friends

No (sub) lease agreement

Usurped land

Life in conventional residence, which is not a regular place of residence and is used due to absence of personal home

Usurpation of housing (no legal documentation for lease)

Usurpation of land (no documents for ownership)

9 People living under threat of eviction *9.1

*9.2

Legal decision for eviction (rented residence)

Repossession of mortgaged home

Eviction decision is in effect

Creditor possesses legal decision to takeover ownership

10 People living under threat of violence *10.1 Incidents registered by the police Police acts to secure safe harbor for the domestic violence victim
11 People living in temporary, unconventional residences 11.1
*11.2
*11.3
Mobile homes
Unconventional objects Temporary structures
Life in temporary home with no conditions for regular housing.
Shelter or substandard cabin.
Tent or cabin.
Inadequate housing
12 People living in uninhabitable residential conditions 12.1 Usurpation of an uninhabitable object Defined as inappropriate housing according to national housing legislation
13 People living in overcrowded home 13.1 According to the highest norm for over crowdedness at national level In case when the national norm for the number of people living in one room is surpassed.

– IN MACEDONIA THE CATEGORIES ARE MARKED WITH ASTERISK (*)