ETHOS – EUROPEAN TYPOLOGY ON HOMELESSNESS AND HOUSING EXCLUSION
The homelessness is one of the main societal problems dealt with by the Strategy for Social Protection and EU Accession. Prevention of homelessness and resolution of the housing issues requires understanding of the way and the process which leads to homelessness, thus creating wide perception on the meaning of homelessness.
FEANTSA (European Association of Organizations Working with Homeless People) has developed a typology on homelessness and housing exclusion under the name of ETHOS.
ETHOS starts with the conceptual framework which defines the three segments of housing. The absence of any of these segments will indicate homelessness.
Having a home means: possession of an appropriate space which is exclusively owned by the person and his /her family (PHYSICAL DOMAIN). The space should offer a possibility for maintenance of privacy and social relations (SOCIAL DOMAIN) and there should be a legal right for the use of the space (LEGAL DOMAIN).
This leads to four different basic forms or concepts: 1.without roof, 2.without a home, 3.Insecure housing,
- Inappropriate housing. Each of these may be described as a lack of home.
ETHOS classifies the persons without a home based on their life situation or housing situation.
These conceptual categories are divided in 13 operational categories, which may be used for defining different goals for the policy as marking the problem with homelessness, development, monitoring and evaluation of the policy.
|Operational category||Life situation||General definition|
|1||People living in difficult conditions||*1.1||In a public space or out in the open||Life on the street or in public places, without shelter which resembles a residence||No foof|
|2||People placed in urgent housing||*2.1||Sleep-over shelters||People who do not have regular place of residence and use the services of the shelters for sleepover|
|3||People housed in shelters for homeless||3.1
|Hostels for homeless
Transition Housing Centres
|Short-term stay||No home|
|4||People housed in shelters for women||*4.1||Shelters and reception points for women||Women, mostly domestic violence victims, housed in shelter-centres intended for short-stay|
|5||People placed in housing intended for immigrants||*5.1
|*temporary housing / shelter centres
Housing for workers – immigrants
|Immigrants in shelters and in centres for short-term housing due to their immigrant status|
|6||People soon to be released from prison, from health care or other institutions||*6.1
|*Correctional and penitentiary institutions *Health care institutions (including centres for rehabilitation of addicts, psychiatric hospitals)
**Institutions for children / homes
|No available home prior to leaving the institution
Stays longer in the institution due to absence of home
No identified home (ex. until the 18th birthday)
|7||People receiving long-term support due to homelessness||7.1
|Residential housing of elderly homeless people Supported housing of former homeless people||Longer-term housing with care for former homeless people (usually for a time 7.2 period longer than one year)|
|8||People living in insecure housing||*8.1
|Temporary housing with relatives and close friends
No (sub) lease agreement
|Life in conventional residence, which is not a regular place of residence and is used due to absence of personal home
Usurpation of housing (no legal documentation for lease)
Usurpation of land (no documents for ownership)
|9||People living under threat of eviction||*9.1
|Legal decision for eviction (rented residence)
Repossession of mortgaged home
|Eviction decision is in effect
Creditor possesses legal decision to takeover ownership
|10||People living under threat of violence||*10.1||Incidents registered by the police||Police acts to secure safe harbor for the domestic violence victim|
|11||People living in temporary, unconventional residences||11.1
Unconventional objects Temporary structures
|Life in temporary home with no conditions for regular housing.
Shelter or substandard cabin.
Tent or cabin.
|12||People living in uninhabitable residential conditions||12.1||Usurpation of an uninhabitable object||Defined as inappropriate housing according to national housing legislation|
|13||People living in overcrowded home||13.1||According to the highest norm for over crowdedness at national level||In case when the national norm for the number of people living in one room is surpassed.|
– IN MACEDONIA THE CATEGORIES ARE MARKED WITH ASTERISK (*)